Parafunctional Oral Habits: Frequency and Association with Malocclusion Traits in Adolescents

Faiza Malik                                   BDS, FCPS, CHPE
Hooria Haq.                                 BDS
Rashid Mehmood                       BDS
Kashif Haroon                            BDS, M Orth RCS Ed
Mazhar Hussain                         BDS
Fiza Khan                                    BDS

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of parafunctional oral habits and their association with types of malocclusions in all three planes among the adolescents.
METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study involved 610 students studying in 8 different schools of Raiwind, Lahore. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Sharif Medical and Dental College, Lahore. Data was collected by the primary researcher and recorded in predesigned proforma. Each student was inspected while seated in an upright position in natural day light, using disposable wooden blades to retract the cheek to record posterior dental relationships and to retract lips to record anterior dental relationships. Data was scrutinized using SPSS and chi-square test was used to find the statistical significance of the association between various parafunctional oral habits and types of malocclusions.
RESULTS: The frequency of parafunctional oral habits was 57.3% among 610 adolescent students, being more prevalent in females (72.9%) than males (52.3%). The most common oral parafunctional habit was bruxism (18.0%) and least frequent was thumb sucking (8.4%). Association between oral parafunctional habits and malocclusion in all three planes was found to be significant (p=0.0).
CONCLUSION: The parafunctional oral habits such as bruxism, tongue thrusting, nail biting, mouth breathing and thumb sucking are very commonly found among adolescents in the same descending order. Most common malocclusions found to be associated with parafunctional oral habits are exaggerated over-jet, open bite and deep bite. Parafunctional oral habits have a strong influence on developing malocclusion traits in all three dimensions.
KEYWORDS: Parafunctional oral habits, malocclusion, thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, mouth breathing, bruxism, nail biting.
HOW TO CITE: Malik F, Haq H, Mehmood R, Haroon K, Hussain M, Khan F. Parafunctional oral habits: Frequency and association with malocclusion traits in adolescents. J Pak Dent Assoc 2022;31(4):188-193.
Received: 28 March 2022, Accepted: 15 December 2022

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