Oral and Systemic Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Exploring the Association

Hafiz Muhammad Shahzad Khurshid1          BDS, MPhil
Taffazul H Mahmud2                                       MBBS, MRCP, FRCP
Saima Chaudhry3                                            BDS, PhD



OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease with variety of clinical and oral
mucosal presentations. Our study aimed to record all those oral pathological changes which occur in patients of SLE and observe
the associations between the clinical signs and oral disease status.
METHODOLOGY: Present study was conducted in Rheumatology Department of Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore,
Pakistan. Consecutive sampling was done, and 130 diagnosed patients with SLE of both genders and all ages were recruited
in the study after getting written informed consent. Patients with any comorbid conditions were excluded from the study. Detailed
clinical and oral examinations were performed, and relevant disease findings were recorded. Associations between oral and
clinical manifestations were computed through chi-squared test of significance keeping the confidence level at 95%.
RESULTS: Out of 130 patients, 115 were females and 15 were males. Mean age of patients reported with SLE was 31.65 ±
9.5 years. Arthritis was the most common clinical finding followed by photosensitivity. Among the oral pathologies, oral ulcers,
xerostomia, gingivitis, glossitis, mucositis, gingival bleeding, and hyperplasia were observed. Nephritis was associated with
most oral manifestations, followed by psychosis, hair loss and skin rash.
CONCLUSIONS: SLE has a strong component of oral mucosal pathologies. The most common skin findings were rash,
followed by photosensitivity and arthritis. Commonest oral manifestation was oral ulceration present and past. Significant
associations were found between certain oral and systemic manifestations.
KEYWORDS: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic, Oral, Ulcer.
HOW TO CITE: Khurshid HMS, Mahmud TH, Chaudhry S. Oral and systemic manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus;
Exploring the association. J Pak Dent Assoc 2022;31(3):120-124.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.25301/JPDA.313.120
Received: 14 September 2022, Accepted: 21 September 2022

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