Golden Proportion and Golden Standard Assessment of Maxillary Anterior Teeth Among Undergraduate Students”

Danish Shahnawaz                                                                           BDS

Hira Akhtar                                                                                         BDS

Ziaullah Choudry                                                                              BDS, MSc

Farah Naz                                                                                            BDS, FCPS

Arshad Hassan                                                                                  BDS, FCPS

Javeria Ali Khan                                                                               BDS, FCPS

OBJECTIVE: Dental esthetics is a prime consideration for all patients. While restoring teeth, high importance should be given to the size and shape of teeth for better esthetic results. Various proportions have been recommended to describe the relationship between maxillary anterior teeth. Golden Proportion and Golden Standard are two ratios most commonly used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the golden proportion and golden standard in maxillary anterior teeth among Pakistani undergraduate students.

METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional study, conducted in the department of Operative Dentistry at Dental Section of Dow International Medical College (Dow University of Health Sciences). One hundred students (28 males and 72 females) meeting the inclusion criteria were selected, their dental casts were analyzed for actual width and length and apparent width by digital caliper. From these measurements golden standard and golden proportion were calculated.

RESULTS: Mean value of golden standard was found to be 0.82 (82%, p=0.04) as compared to the ideal standard value of 80%. Mean value of golden proportion was found to be 1.67 (p=2.09X10-7)

CONCLUSION: Within the confines of this study, Golden Proportion and Golden Standard were not found to exist in the sample Pakistani population.

KEY WORDS: Golden Proportion (GP), Golden Standard (GP), Tooth proportion, Maxillary Anterior teeth, Esthetic.

HOW TO CITE: Shahnawaz D, Akhtar H, Choudry Z, Naz F, Hasan A, Khan JA. Golden proportion and golden standard assessment of maxillary anterior teeth among undergraduate students”. J Pak Dent Assoc 2019;28(2):74-77.


Received: 29 January 2019, Accepted: 06 March 2019