Correlation of Education Level with Severity of Gingivitis and Plaque Score

Hina Mahmood1                 BDS, MDS
Faizana Wasiq Khan2        BDS
Manal Raouf 3                    BDS



OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to find the correlation of educational level with severity of gingivitis and plaque
score of patients reporting to the OPD of periodontology department.
METHODOLOGY: Cross sectional study was conducted at Islamabad Dental Hospital from May 2018 to May 2019. A total
of 376 patients diagnosed with gingivitis were selected using convenience sampling technique. For correlation, participants
were equally divided into four educational groups categorized as illiterate, primary, secondary and tertiary. Informed consent
was taken from the participants and information regarding socio demographic data and education level was recorded. Oral
examinations included visible plaque index (VPI) by Ainamo & Bay and for severity of gingivitis, modified gingival index
(MGI) by Lobene and Weatherford was used. Severity of gingivitis was categorized into mild, moderate and severe. Visible
plaque score was calculated as percentage on the basis of presence or absence of plaque which was divided into two categories
having plaque score < 30 and plaque score > 30. Correlation was calculated by Spearman's correlation test with statistical
significance < 0.01 at 95% confidence interval.
RESULTS: Results revealed that moderate gingivitis was most prevalent among all four education groups. Highest percentage
of severe gingivitis was observed for illiterate subjects 42(50%) whereas highest percentage of mild gingivitis was observed
for subjects with tertiary education 23(65.7%). For subjects with primary and secondary education moderate gingivitis was
most prevalent with 72(28%). Correlation of education with severity of gingivitis and plaque score was statistically significant
(p-value < 0.01) when spearman's correlation test was applied indicating that as the education level increased severity of
gingivitis and plaque score decreased.
CONCLUSION: Hence it was concluded that low educational status is moderately correlated with poor oral hygiene and high
prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis making it necessary for the community service programs to inculcate oral health
care workshops in early years of school and to the communities where higher education is far reached.
KEYWORDS: Severity of gingivitis, plaque score, education level
HOW TO CITE: Mahmood H, Khan FW, Raouf M. Correlation of education level with severity of gingivitis and plaque score.
J Pak Dent Assoc 2022;31(1):38-42.
Received: 08 July 2021, Accepted: 16 November 2021

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