Comparison Between Three Methods of Gonial Angle Formation on Lateral Cephalogram and Orthopantomogram


Mirza Hammad ul-Haq1                                                       BDS

Sarwat Memon2                                                                            BDS, FCPS

Durreshahwar Agha3                                                               BDS


The aim of this study was to compare three methods of gonial angle determination on a cephalogram with the method used to find gonial angle in an orthopantomogram, amongst three vertical groups (i.e; hyperdivergent, normodivergent and hypodivergent).

Methodology: A total of 178 panoramic and cephalometric radiographs of patients ranging from age 12-39 were used in this study. Gonial angle was constructed by three methods defined by Tweed’s, Steiner’s and Down’s on the cephalogram and was then compared to the method of gonial angle determination on an OPG. Repeated measure ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used for comparison.

Results: The mean – difference between the values of different methods of finding Gonial Angle on cephalogram and orthopantomogram of was found to be statistically significant (i.e; P = <0.05) after Bonferroni correction amongst three vertical groups

CONCLUSION: The value of gonial angle determination on an Orthopantomogram was found to be different when compared with the three methods (Tweed’s, Steiner’s and down’s) of gonial angle determination on lateral cephalogram.

KEY WORDS: Gonial Angle, Lateral Cephalogram, Orthopantomogram, Vertical facial group.

HOW TO CITE: Ul Haq MH, Memon S, Agha D. Comparison between three methods of gonial angle formation on lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram. J Pak Dent Assoc 2018;27(2):57-61.


Received: 03 January 2018, Accepted: 31 January 2018